political organization and behavior

This is a listing of every resource tagged with 'political organization and behavior'.



Gandhi Timeline
A scrollable, interactive timeline illustrated with photographs and descriptions of key events in the life of Mohandas K. Gandhi

Mapping the Middle East: Geography, Politics, and Religion
This interactive, map-based resource allows users to highlight individual countries of the Middle East for information about leadership, suffrage, and religious make-up. Also included are a quiz and secondary maps about Muslim populations throughout the world by number, percentage of population, and Shi'a/Sunni breakdown.

Young India: A Weekly Journal, March 23, 1922
Issue of the newspaper Young India: A Weekly Journal including "The Great Trial," a report on the trial of Gandhi for sedition, in Ahmedabad, March 18, 1922

Asbab-e-baghawat-e-Hind (Causes of the Indian Revolt)
Essay by Syed Ahmad Khan discussing factors leading to the 1857 Rebellion, published as a pamphlet (in Urdu) in 1859, in English in 1873. Abridged and annotated version.

"On Wahabism"
Letter sent by Syed Ahmad Khan to the editor of the Pioneer regarding British misunderstanding of Wahabism

"The Indian National Congress"
Speech delivered to Muslims of Meerut by Syed Ahmad Khan, opposing Muslim involvement in the Indian National Congress

"The Views of Sir Syed on the Caliphate"
Essay by Syed Ahmad Khan arguing that the Muslims of India do not owe allegiance to the Caliph of another country

Country Profile: India
Brief overview of India's history, geography and demography, economy, transportation and telecommunications, government and politics, and national security.

Country Profile: Pakistan
Brief overview of Pakistan's history, geography, demographics, society, economy, transportation and telecommunications, government and politics, and national security.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Memories of the Mahatma, by G. V. Mavalankar

This BBC radio program features G. V. Mavalankar, who was Gandhi's lawyer and was Speaker in the Indian Lower House; he died in 1956. He relates his memories of his first meeting with Gandhi in Ahmedabad in 1916, when he felt that Gandhi's apparent obsession with everyday tasks was wrong, that he was "full of idiosyncrasies" and impolite to visitors. He recalls meeting Gandhi at the Gujarat Club in company with Sardar Patel (who would later become deputy prime minister of the newly independent India). Patel prevented Mavalankar from greeting Gandhi immediately, as he felt that the Mahatma did not like ceremony. Mavalankar analyzes how Gandhi persuaded people to follow nonviolent methods, and tells an anecdote about the 1931 census that illustrates Gandhi's relations with Patel.


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Memories of the Mahatma, by Dr. B. C. Roy

In this BBC radio program, Francis Watson interviews B. C. Roy, who was one of Gandhi's doctors and attended him constantly in his later years. In 1956 Roy became prime minister of West Bengal. Roy describes his first meeting with Gandhi in 1925 in Calcutta, and why Gandhi was a difficult patient; his treatment of Gandhi during his fasts, including the fast in Aga Kahn's palace when Gandhi's condition was very critical; Gandhi's frugal diet in 1931, and his ability to gain weight or sleep at will; and how once, in 1944, he managed to persuade Gandhi to take medicine. Roy explains why he feels that Gandhi was not a religious man; Gandhi's main belief was that individuals should develop, based on khadi (nonviolence), along with society. He relates anecdotes about Muslim maltreatment of women in the 1946 Noakhali riots; the strength Gandhi imbued into followers of the civil disobedience movement; and Gandhi's willingness to try other methods if his own did not achieve his aims.


Talking of Gandhiji: The Last Phase. The fourth and last of a series of programmes on the life of Mahatma Gandhi.

This BBC radio program begins with a description of Gandhi's sober reaction to the Transfer of Power; he did not approve of Partition and was grieved by the violence between Hindus and Muslims. Ian Stephens gives an impression of his vitality in an interview. Impression of his new home and work in Noakhali (Bengal) and campaign of nonviolence there. Lord Mountbatten recalls his first meeting with Gandhi and the reconciliation he effected between Gandhi and Jinnah. Suhrawardy recollects his stay with Gandhi in Calcutta and his miraculous bringing of temporary peace to the city. But Gandhi was not satisfied and began another fast, which succeeded in quelling subsequent rioting; and then he came to Delhi. Tribute to the work of Indira Gandhi. Nehru pays tribute to "this weak little bundle of bones" and gives a picture of the comfort which the latter's daily prayer meetings brought to troubled Delhi. Description of his last fast to ensure that the new peace was made in the right spirit, and the love with which people regarded him. The program ends with a brief description of Gandhi's assassination.


Talking of Gandhiji: The Conquest of India. The second of four programmes of memories of men and women who knew him.

The speakers who contribute to this BBC radio program discuss the growth of Gandhi from the "respected crank" of 1915 to the world figure he was at the time of his death. Especial points in his career are described: the 1922 trial, the fasts of 1924 and 1932, and the 1930 Salt March. Speakers' assessments of his work vary, but most emphasized among his campaigns are those for the Untouchables and for India's independence without losing the friendship of the British. The program includes a tribute from Lord Halifax, who as Lord Irwin and Viceroy of India made the Irwin-Gandhi Pact with Gandhi.


Talking of Gandhiji: A Portrait. The first of four programmes of memories of men and women who knew him.

This BBC radio program begins with a short extract from a speech by Gandhi. The speakers provide details of Gandhi's character and appearance—"an extraordinarily plain-looking man"—and opinions on his political powers and integrity. Opinions on whether he was a saint, politician, both, or merely "a self-made man" are all expressed here. The program ends with an extract from Gandhi's "Spiritual Message to the World."


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Memories of the Mahatma, by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

This BBC radio program features B. R. Ambedkar, distinguished lawyer and leader of the Untouchables who was opposed to Gandhi's policy relating to a separate electorate of the Untouchables. Ambedkar recounts memories of meeting Gandhi in 1929 and after the signing of the Poona Pact in jail. As he saw Gandhi in the capacity of an opponent, he feels that he saw more of the real man than his devotees. Ambedkar considers Gandhi "an episode" rather than "an epoch-maker" and believes he deceived the people and was two-faced over caste. He analyzes the status of the Untouchables (Harijan) and inconsistencies in Gandhi's apparent championship of them. Ambedkar feels that political independence would have come without Gandhi, but that the Transfer of Power was premature. He also examines motives behind Attlee's sudden change of policy. He relates his memories of the Poona Pact and his disagreement with Gandhi over the Untouchable suffrage and the electoral system he proposed. Ambedkar stresses that Gandhi worked entirely as a politician and was not a Mahatma.


Islam in the Modern World: Examination of the Role and Significance of Islam in Modern Society. 6 (of 8). India.

This BBC radio program discusses the relationship between Indian Hindus and Muslims; the 1947 partition and the creation of Pakistan (including personal memories); and current trends and political influences on Islam in India.


The 1975 Emergency
In this brief video, Partha Chatterjee (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) discusses the circumstances surrounding the 1975 Emergency in India declared by Indira Gandhi. He views it as the culmination of her efforts to create a stronger, more authoritarian Congress Party and to consolidate centralized political power. She declared the emergency to avoid being pressured to resign as prime minister after being found guilty of violating election laws in 1971. The political opposition was immediately jailed and the normal processes of politics were completely suspended, but the Emergency regime was short-lived. Media were so tightly controlled that there was no immediate outcry that threatened the regime, but it proved difficult to rule effectively in the absence of normal political processes. Gandhi herself called for elections, assuming that she would win, but once the media opened up people realized what the Emergency regime had meant, and she lost dramatically.

Divergent experiences of India and Pakistan after 1947
In this brief video, Partha Chatterjee (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) discusses how India and Pakistan have differed in their development. Pakistan's early political leaders were not from regions that became Pakistan, and local populations did not immediately become part of the government, though the Punjab elite were well represented in the army. Creating a strong central government proved difficult, and in 1956 the Pakistani army staged a coup. Since then the military has largely ruled the country, and major institutions of government have not had a chance to develop. In India, by contrast, the foundations of crucial institutions were successfully laid, and despite phases of totalitarian rule and of unsuccessful coalition governments, all parties assume that government will operate within the terms of the Constitution. Many Indians complain of slow economic growth, which some blame on Indian democracy, but many consider this a price worth paying for freedoms not enjoyed elsewhere, including Pakistan. Pakistan presents bleak choices between the military elite and the popular opposition, which in recent years has tended to come from right-wing Islamist groups.

The Government of India Act
In this brief video Nicholas Dirks (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) notes that while the 1935 Government of India Act was a major moment in the independence of India, it was also too little too late. The British used the interests of Indian princes to slow down the transfer of power and treated Muslim political interests as fundamentally separate from Hindu interests.

The Quit India movement
In this brief video Nicholas Dirks (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) discusses Indian disillusionment over the Britain's failure to consult the elected government before involving India in World War II. This disillusionment led to the Quit India movement, in which Indian nationalist leaders called for noncooperation with the war effort and declared British rule illegitimate.

Gandhi and Nehru
In this brief video Nicholas Dirks (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) argues that it is a mistake to characterize Gandhi as the spiritual leader, Nehru as the political leader of India. Gandhi was highly aware of the political implications of anything he did. He described his life in politics as a life of spiritual seeking and saw no real distinction between the world of politics and the world of religion. Nehru's 1919 encounter with Gandhi changed his life; he joined the nationalist movement and became a follower of Gandhi both spiritually and politically.

Syllabus for "Introduction to South Asian History and Culture"
An interactive syllabus, with hyperlinked digital resources, for Fall 2005 Columbia University anthropology course "Introduction to South Asian History and Culture." The course introduces seminal writings in the emergence of modernity on the Indian subcontinent, surveying major figures who helped shape social and political struggles during the British colonial period (roughly 1818-1947). It examines debates about religious reform, the role of women, nation formation, and caste stratification. The course analyzes, among other things, what was at stake in formulations of "tradition"and "modernity," how these formulations relate to contemporary issues and everyday life in South Asia, and how concepts such as gender, caste, religion, and nation change over time.

Modern South Asia Timeline: Social Movements, Political Events, and Intellectual Production
An interactive timeline, with hyperlinked documents, maps, short biographies, and other material, focusing on the modern history of the Indian subcontinent. The timeline covers the nineteenth-century religious reforms instituted by Indian intellectuals and British colonial officials and the nationalist movements leading to the 1947 independence of India and the creation of Pakistan. It provides a brief overview of earlier cultural and political events (the Brahmanical tradition, the Mughal period) that influenced debates of the British colonial period. It also lists key events, post-1947 to the 1990s, relevant to contemporary anthropological questions regarding caste, gender, and ethnic conflict. The timeline was prepared in conjunction with Columbia University anthropology course "Introduction to South Asian History and Culture" (Fall 2005).

Web site for "Introduction to South Asian History and Culture"
Class web site for Fall 2005 Columbia University anthropology course "Introduction to South Asian History and Culture." The website includes an interactive syllabus (with hyperlinked digital resources including texts, maps, photographs, audio, and video) and an interactive timeline of modern South Asia history (with further hyperlinked resources). The course introduces seminal writings in the emergence of modernity on the Indian subcontinent, surveying major figures who helped shape social and political struggles during the British colonial period (roughly 1818-1947). It examines debates about religious reform, the role of women, nation formation, and caste stratification, and analyzes what was at stake in formulations of "tradition" and "modernity," how these formulations relate to contemporary issues and everyday life in South Asia, and how concepts such as gender, caste, religion, and nation change over time. The timeline was designed to provide greater historical context for the course readings. It focuses particularly on the 1818-1947 period, but also provides a brief overview of earlier cultural and political eras and highlights key events, post-1947 to the 1990s, relevant to contemporary anthropological questions regarding caste, gender, and ethnic conflict.

Letter from Rabindranath Tagore to Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India
A public letter addressed by Rabindranath Tagore to Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India, in which Tagore protests the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, Punjab, and renounces the knighthood that had been conferred on him in 1915. The letter was published in The Statesman (June 3, 1919), a leading English-language Indian newspaper, and in the Modern Review (July 1919), a Calcutta monthly.

Map of Bangladesh
Map of Bangladesh's political boundaries, including divisions, with railroads and roads

Political Map of Sri Lanka
Map showing boundaries of Sri Lanka's provinces, with railroads and roads

Map of India
Map of India's political boundaries, including states, with railroads and roads

Map of Pakistan
Map of Pakistan's political boundaries, including provinces, with railroads and roads.