India

This is a listing of every resource related to India.



More general:  South Asia

More specific:  North India (0), Punjab (2), Himalayas (1), Orissa (1), Delhi (60), Darjeeling (3), Meerut (1), Uttar Pradesh (1), Aligarh (1), Calcutta (4), Ahmedabad (1), Amritsar (1)
Gandhi Timeline
A scrollable, interactive timeline illustrated with photographs and descriptions of key events in the life of Mohandas K. Gandhi

Gandhi outside his Johannesburg office
Photograph of M. K. Gandhi at his law office in Johannesburg, South Africa

Gandhi in 1915
Portrait of M. K. Gandhi around the time of his return to India from South Africa, via England

"Autobiographical Sketch"
Rammohun Roy's brief (two-page) overview of his life.

Portrait of Raja Rammohun Roy
Three-quarters-length portrait of Rammohun Roy; engraving based on painting by Henry Perronet Briggs. Frontispiece to The English Works of Raja Rammohun Roy.

Portrait of Raja Rammohun Roy
Engraving depicting Roy in profile, over signature "Rammohun Roy"

Tomb of Raja Rammohun Roy in the Cemetary of Arno's Vale, near Bristol
Photograph of tomb of Rammohun Roy

Regulation XVII, A.D. 1829 of the Bengal code (4 December 1829)
Legal code issued by the colonial government of India concerning the practice of sati

Petition of Hindus against the abolition of sati (19 December 1829)
Petition submitted to the Governor-General's Council by a group of Hindus, protesting the Council's abolition of sati.

The Relations of the Sexes
An excerpt from A History of the Arya Samaj (1915), describing improvements in the lives of Hindu women in India

"The Agitation Against Sati, 1987-88"
Essay on the contemporary debate over sati in India

"Strange Response"
Opinion piece on the Roop Kanwar sati case

"When Bodies Are Not Equal How Can Rights Be Equal?"
Opinion piece on sati in contemporary India

"Remarks on Settlement in India by Europeans"
Essay concerning advantages and disadvantages of European (British) settlement in India as perceived by Rammohun Roy

"The Brahmunical Magazine, or, The Missionary and the Brahmun; Being a Vindication of the Hindoo Religion against the Attacks of Christian Missionaries"
Essay by Rammohun Roy in defense of Hinduism

"Translation of a Conference between an Advocate for and an Opponent of the Practice of Burning Widows Alive"
Essay by Rammohun Roy concerning sati

"A Second Conference between an Advocate for and an Opponent of the Practice of Burning Widows Alive"
Essay by Rammohun Roy concerning sati

"Abstract of the Arguments Regarding the Burning of Widows, Considered as a Religious Rite"
Essay by Rammohun Roy arguing that Hinduism does not make self-immolation (sati) incumbent upon widows.

The Indian Empire
Map depicting British colonial India (red), Indian-administered territories (pink), and independent states and territories (green). This map appears on the inside cover of all volumes of the Imperial Gazetteer of India.

Calcutta
Map of the city of Calcutta (1909)

Environs of Calcutta
Map of Calcutta (1909) and surrounding area

Young India: A Weekly Journal, March 23, 1922
Issue of the newspaper Young India: A Weekly Journal including "The Great Trial," a report on the trial of Gandhi for sedition, in Ahmedabad, March 18, 1922

Asbab-e-baghawat-e-Hind (Causes of the Indian Revolt)
Essay by Syed Ahmad Khan discussing factors leading to the 1857 Rebellion, published as a pamphlet (in Urdu) in 1859, in English in 1873. Abridged and annotated version.

"Review on Hunter's Indian Musalmans"
Book review essay by Syed Ahmad Khan; an abridgement of a series of articles originally appearing in the Indian newspaper Pioneer

"Sir Syed and the Education Commission"
Transcription of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan's appearance at the proceedings of the Education Commission appointed in 1882 by the Government of India

"Speech at the Founding of the Anglo-Oriental College"
Speech delivered by Syed Ahmad Khan at the public dinner in honor of the founding of the Mahomaden Anglo-Oriental College, Aligarh (later called Aligarh University)

"On Wahabism"
Letter sent by Syed Ahmad Khan to the editor of the Pioneer regarding British misunderstanding of Wahabism

"The Indian National Congress"
Speech delivered to Muslims of Meerut by Syed Ahmad Khan, opposing Muslim involvement in the Indian National Congress

"The Views of Sir Syed on the Caliphate"
Essay by Syed Ahmad Khan arguing that the Muslims of India do not owe allegiance to the Caliph of another country

European Settlements in South Asia, 1498-1763
Map depicting dates and locations of first settlements by the British, Danish, Dutch, French, and Portuguese on the Indian subcontinent

India during the War of 1857-58
Map depicting the degrees of involvement of Indian states during the 1857 Rebellion

The 1947 Partition of India
Interactive map showing national boundaries on the Indian subcontinent, before and after the August 15, 1947 Partition

Seminar with Professor M. N. Srinivas (excerpts)
Discussion with anthropologist M. N. Srinivas, led by Jack Goody and Stephen Levinson, in which Srinivas reflects on his fieldwork in India.

Country Profile: India
Brief overview of India's history, geography and demography, economy, transportation and telecommunications, government and politics, and national security.

Nepal and Part of Tibet
Early 20th-century map of Nepal and a portion of Tibet

Annual Migrations of Three Sherpa Yak-herds of Khumjung
Black-and-white line map showing the seasonal migration routes of three Sherpa yak-owners from Khumjung, Nepal. The symbols are explained at the beginning of a four-page description of the yak migration that refers to the map as "Diagram B": triangles stand for permanently inhabited villages; rectangles for subsidiary settlements with crop-cultivations, circles for subsidiary settlements without fields, and crosses for unroofed shelters on high pastures.

Introduction to South Asian History and Culture: Course Syllabus
Syllabus, with integrated digital resources, for a Columbia University undergraduate anthropology course designed to introduce students to seminal writings in the emergence of modernity on the Indian subcontinent. The course surveys major figures who grappled with and helped shape social and political struggles during the British colonial period (roughly 1818-1947). It focuses on debates about religious reform, the role of women, nation formation, and caste stratification. Readings include autobiographies, speeches, dialogues, treatises, ethnography, and literary fiction; digital resources include primary texts, maps, timeline, illustrations, video.

McDonald's on Janpath Road
Photograph of a McDonald's on Janpath Road, near Connaught Place in Delhi

Pepsi Stand
Photograph of a Pepsi stand at Connaught Place, Delhi

Juice Stand
Photograph of a juice stand in Connaught Place, Delhi

Mobile in the Park
Photograph of a young man talking on his mobile phone in South Extension Part II Market, Delhi

Chatting in the Park
Photograph of four men seated on the ground, chatting, in South Extension Part II Market, Delhi

South Ex Facade
Photograph of commercial facades in South Extension Part II Market, Delhi

Newsreading
Photograph of two men standing by a motorcycle in the parking lot of South Extension Part II Market, Delhi, reading a newspaper

Rickshaw-walla
A turbaned cycle-rickshaw driver, photographed while negotiating traffic in an Old Delhi market

Women's Study Circle (I)
Photograph of women studying at the Jama Masjid in Delhi

Women's Study Circle (II)
Photograph of women studying at the Jama Masjid in Delhi

Columns of Jama Masjid
Photograph of people seated by the columns encircling the Jama Masjid in Delhi, India. The mosque was commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and completed in 1656.

Women's Study Circle (III)
Photograph of women studying at the Jama Masjid in Delhi

Jama Masjid (I)
Photograph of the facade of the Jama Masjid in Delhi, India. The mosque was commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and completed in 1656.

Jama Masjid (II)
Photograph of the Jama Masjid of Delhi, India. The mosque was commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and completed in 1656.

Scene at the Jama Masjid
Photograph of tourists and locals on the grounds of the Jama Masjid in Delhi. The famous mosque was commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and completed in 1656.

Lunch at the Jama Masjid
Photograph of people eating lunch in the main courtyard of the Jama Masjid in Delhi

Southern Steps of the Jama Masjid
Photograph of the steps of the Jama Masjid, leading down to and facing the commercial streets and bazaars of Old Delhi

Main Courtyard of Jama Masjid (I)
Photograph of the main courtyard of the Jama Masjid in Delhi. The mosque was commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and completed in 1656.

Main Courtyard of Jama Masjid (II)
Photograph of the main courtyard of Jama Masjid in Delhi. The mosque was commissioned by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and completed in 1656.

Prayer Mats (I)
Photograph of prayer mats at Jama Masjid, Delhi.

Prayer Mats (II)
Photograph of prayer mats at the Jama Masjid in Delhi

Two Boys
Photograph of two boys at the Jama Masjid in Delhi

Security Guard
Photograph of a security guard at the Jama Masjid in Delhi

Book Market (I)
Photograph of the book market in Old Delhi

Chaiwallah
Photograph of a tea seller in Old Delhi

Book Market (II)
Photograph of the book market in Old Delhi

Old Delhi Street Scene
Photograph of a market in Old Delhi

Airtel Ad
Photograph of a billboard in Delhi advertising a cellular telephone company

Parvesh General Store
Photograph of a storefront in Delhi

Cellular Ltd. Billboard
Photograph of a billboard in Delhi advertising a cellular telephone company

Touchtel Billboard
Photograph of a billboard in Delhi advertising a telephone service company

Digital Studio Storefront I
Photograph of the storefront of a Delhi photography studio

Digital Studio Storefront II
Photograph of the storefront of a Delhi photography studio

Shops
Photograph of a bookshop and vegetable carts on a side street in South Delhi

Grape-seller
Photograph of a man selling grapes in South Delhi

Cyber Cafe
Photograph of a shop sign for a cyber cafe in South Delhi

Cyber Link
Photograph of exterior of an internet cafe in South Delhi

Chaat-wallah
Photograph of a man preparing street snacks (chaat) to sell to passersby in Old Delhi

Small Temple
Photograph of a small temple in Old Delhi, adorned by a large idol of Krishna. A cycle-rickshaw passes by in the foreground.

Tobacco-seller
Photograph of a tobacco shop and its proprietor on a sidewalk in Daryaganj, Old Delhi

Golcha Cinema
Photograph of the historic Golcha Cinema hall in Daryaganj, Old Delhi

Film Hoarding
Photograph of a film hoarding for Munna Bhai, playing at the Golcha Cinema in Daryaganj, Old Delhi

Morning Paper
Photograph of a man reading the morning paper in Daryaganj (Old Delhi)

Ansari Road
Photograph of men gathered on Ansari Road, Daryaganj (Old Delhi)

Roadside Tailors I
Photograph of two roadside tailors on Ansari Road in Daryaganj (Old Delhi)

Roadside Tailors II
Photograph of two roadside tailors on Ansari Road in Daryaganj (Old Delhi)

Coca-Cola Billboard
Photograph of a billboard in Ansal Plaza, Delhi, featuring Bollywood star Hrithik Roshan advertising Coca-Cola

McDonald's Window
Photograph of a McDonald's Restaurant in Ansal Plaza, Delhi

Chicken
Photograph of the meat market section of Delhi's INA Market

Foodstuff
Photograph of a grocery mart in Delhi's INA Market

Dhabawalla
Photograph of a cook in a roadside restaurant (dhaba) in Delhi's INA market

Sewing Machines
Photograph of a tailor's sewing machines, INA Market, Delhi

Tailor at Work
Photograph of a tailor at work in his shop in INA Market, Delhi

Phul-wallas
Photograph of two flower (phul) sellers in the parking lot of INA Market, Delhi

While Driving in Delhi
Short video interview about "kitty parties," a type of social gathering for women

Gauri Shankar Mandir
Short video of men outside a Hindu temple in Delhi, making garlands to be sold to worshippers and used for religious offerings

Barber Shop
Short video of men getting haircuts in Delhi's INA Market

The Sherpas of Nepal, ch. 1, "Environment and Economy"
Opening chapter of The Sherpas of Nepal (1964), describing the areas of Nepal where the main concentrations of Sherpas live, the types of settlements they have created, and their agriculture, animal husbandry, trade, and crafts.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Memories of the Mahatma, by G. V. Mavalankar

This BBC radio program features G. V. Mavalankar, who was Gandhi's lawyer and was Speaker in the Indian Lower House; he died in 1956. He relates his memories of his first meeting with Gandhi in Ahmedabad in 1916, when he felt that Gandhi's apparent obsession with everyday tasks was wrong, that he was "full of idiosyncrasies" and impolite to visitors. He recalls meeting Gandhi at the Gujarat Club in company with Sardar Patel (who would later become deputy prime minister of the newly independent India). Patel prevented Mavalankar from greeting Gandhi immediately, as he felt that the Mahatma did not like ceremony. Mavalankar analyzes how Gandhi persuaded people to follow nonviolent methods, and tells an anecdote about the 1931 census that illustrates Gandhi's relations with Patel.


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Memories of the Mahatma, by Dr. B. C. Roy

In this BBC radio program, Francis Watson interviews B. C. Roy, who was one of Gandhi's doctors and attended him constantly in his later years. In 1956 Roy became prime minister of West Bengal. Roy describes his first meeting with Gandhi in 1925 in Calcutta, and why Gandhi was a difficult patient; his treatment of Gandhi during his fasts, including the fast in Aga Kahn's palace when Gandhi's condition was very critical; Gandhi's frugal diet in 1931, and his ability to gain weight or sleep at will; and how once, in 1944, he managed to persuade Gandhi to take medicine. Roy explains why he feels that Gandhi was not a religious man; Gandhi's main belief was that individuals should develop, based on khadi (nonviolence), along with society. He relates anecdotes about Muslim maltreatment of women in the 1946 Noakhali riots; the strength Gandhi imbued into followers of the civil disobedience movement; and Gandhi's willingness to try other methods if his own did not achieve his aims.


Talking of Gandhiji: The Last Phase. The fourth and last of a series of programmes on the life of Mahatma Gandhi.

This BBC radio program begins with a description of Gandhi's sober reaction to the Transfer of Power; he did not approve of Partition and was grieved by the violence between Hindus and Muslims. Ian Stephens gives an impression of his vitality in an interview. Impression of his new home and work in Noakhali (Bengal) and campaign of nonviolence there. Lord Mountbatten recalls his first meeting with Gandhi and the reconciliation he effected between Gandhi and Jinnah. Suhrawardy recollects his stay with Gandhi in Calcutta and his miraculous bringing of temporary peace to the city. But Gandhi was not satisfied and began another fast, which succeeded in quelling subsequent rioting; and then he came to Delhi. Tribute to the work of Indira Gandhi. Nehru pays tribute to "this weak little bundle of bones" and gives a picture of the comfort which the latter's daily prayer meetings brought to troubled Delhi. Description of his last fast to ensure that the new peace was made in the right spirit, and the love with which people regarded him. The program ends with a brief description of Gandhi's assassination.


Talking of Gandhiji: The Conquest of India. The second of four programmes of memories of men and women who knew him.

The speakers who contribute to this BBC radio program discuss the growth of Gandhi from the "respected crank" of 1915 to the world figure he was at the time of his death. Especial points in his career are described: the 1922 trial, the fasts of 1924 and 1932, and the 1930 Salt March. Speakers' assessments of his work vary, but most emphasized among his campaigns are those for the Untouchables and for India's independence without losing the friendship of the British. The program includes a tribute from Lord Halifax, who as Lord Irwin and Viceroy of India made the Irwin-Gandhi Pact with Gandhi.


Talking of Gandhiji: A Portrait. The first of four programmes of memories of men and women who knew him.

This BBC radio program begins with a short extract from a speech by Gandhi. The speakers provide details of Gandhi's character and appearance—"an extraordinarily plain-looking man"—and opinions on his political powers and integrity. Opinions on whether he was a saint, politician, both, or merely "a self-made man" are all expressed here. The program ends with an extract from Gandhi's "Spiritual Message to the World."


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Memories of the Mahatma, by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar

This BBC radio program features B. R. Ambedkar, distinguished lawyer and leader of the Untouchables who was opposed to Gandhi's policy relating to a separate electorate of the Untouchables. Ambedkar recounts memories of meeting Gandhi in 1929 and after the signing of the Poona Pact in jail. As he saw Gandhi in the capacity of an opponent, he feels that he saw more of the real man than his devotees. Ambedkar considers Gandhi "an episode" rather than "an epoch-maker" and believes he deceived the people and was two-faced over caste. He analyzes the status of the Untouchables (Harijan) and inconsistencies in Gandhi's apparent championship of them. Ambedkar feels that political independence would have come without Gandhi, but that the Transfer of Power was premature. He also examines motives behind Attlee's sudden change of policy. He relates his memories of the Poona Pact and his disagreement with Gandhi over the Untouchable suffrage and the electoral system he proposed. Ambedkar stresses that Gandhi worked entirely as a politician and was not a Mahatma.


Islam in the Modern World: Examination of the Role and Significance of Islam in Modern Society. 6 (of 8). India.

This BBC radio program discusses the relationship between Indian Hindus and Muslims; the 1947 partition and the creation of Pakistan (including personal memories); and current trends and political influences on Islam in India.


Brahmanical
Definition of "Brahmanical"

Brahmo Samaj
Definition of "Brahmo Samaj"

Memory, forgetting, and the ethics of writing history
In this brief video Partha Chatterjee (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) discusses attempts to write about the Partition of India based on oral histories, and the extent to which the events important to individuals may differ from the events important to official history. He also discusses the role of deliberate forgetting of past violence, and the ethics of reviving histories that people have chosen to forget.

The 1975 Emergency
In this brief video, Partha Chatterjee (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) discusses the circumstances surrounding the 1975 Emergency in India declared by Indira Gandhi. He views it as the culmination of her efforts to create a stronger, more authoritarian Congress Party and to consolidate centralized political power. She declared the emergency to avoid being pressured to resign as prime minister after being found guilty of violating election laws in 1971. The political opposition was immediately jailed and the normal processes of politics were completely suspended, but the Emergency regime was short-lived. Media were so tightly controlled that there was no immediate outcry that threatened the regime, but it proved difficult to rule effectively in the absence of normal political processes. Gandhi herself called for elections, assuming that she would win, but once the media opened up people realized what the Emergency regime had meant, and she lost dramatically.

Divergent experiences of India and Pakistan after 1947
In this brief video, Partha Chatterjee (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) discusses how India and Pakistan have differed in their development. Pakistan's early political leaders were not from regions that became Pakistan, and local populations did not immediately become part of the government, though the Punjab elite were well represented in the army. Creating a strong central government proved difficult, and in 1956 the Pakistani army staged a coup. Since then the military has largely ruled the country, and major institutions of government have not had a chance to develop. In India, by contrast, the foundations of crucial institutions were successfully laid, and despite phases of totalitarian rule and of unsuccessful coalition governments, all parties assume that government will operate within the terms of the Constitution. Many Indians complain of slow economic growth, which some blame on Indian democracy, but many consider this a price worth paying for freedoms not enjoyed elsewhere, including Pakistan. Pakistan presents bleak choices between the military elite and the popular opposition, which in recent years has tended to come from right-wing Islamist groups.

The Government of India Act
In this brief video Nicholas Dirks (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) notes that while the 1935 Government of India Act was a major moment in the independence of India, it was also too little too late. The British used the interests of Indian princes to slow down the transfer of power and treated Muslim political interests as fundamentally separate from Hindu interests.

The Quit India movement
In this brief video Nicholas Dirks (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) discusses Indian disillusionment over the Britain's failure to consult the elected government before involving India in World War II. This disillusionment led to the Quit India movement, in which Indian nationalist leaders called for noncooperation with the war effort and declared British rule illegitimate.

Gandhi and Nehru
In this brief video Nicholas Dirks (professor of anthropology, Columbia University) argues that it is a mistake to characterize Gandhi as the spiritual leader, Nehru as the political leader of India. Gandhi was highly aware of the political implications of anything he did. He described his life in politics as a life of spiritual seeking and saw no real distinction between the world of politics and the world of religion. Nehru's 1919 encounter with Gandhi changed his life; he joined the nationalist movement and became a follower of Gandhi both spiritually and politically.

City of Bombay
Early 20th-century map of the city of Bombay

Madras and Environs
Early 20th-century map of the city of Madras and surrounding area

English East India Company
Definition of "English East India Company"

Excerpt from Interview with Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf (wife's role)
Brief excerpt from a 1983 interview with Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf in which the anthropologist discusses the role his wife played in his fieldwork. 1:51:27-1:54:15.

Excerpt from Interview with Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf (fieldwork recording methods)
Brief excerpt from a 1983 interview with Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf in which the anthropologist discusses the usefulness of durable field notebooks, which can be used record what has changed between visits to the same field site.

Hindutva
Definition of "hindutva"

Indian Education: Minute of the 2nd of February, 1835 (abridged)
Report presented by Thomas Macaulay to Lord William Bentinck, governor-general of India, recommending that English replace Sanskrit or Arabic as the language of Indian education.

Languages and Minority Religions of India
Map of India showing major language groups and minority religions (1973)

Muhammad Iqbal
Brief biography of Muhammad Iqbal

Quwwat al-Islam Mosque
Quwwat al-Islam Mosque, Delhi, India. Built in 1190s, on site of a Hindu temple.

Women praying during Eid
Women praying during Eid, Lucknow, India.

View of Delhi from Jama Masjid
View of Delhi from minaret of Jama Masjid.

Rajpath Avenue
Rajpath Avenue, New Delhi, India.

Book Cover: Ahmed Ali, Twilight in Delhi
Indian characters and setting.

Book Cover: Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses
Indian characters, U.K. setting.

Book Cover: Bapsi Sidhwa, Cracking India
Indian/Pakistani characters and setting.

The Sherpas of Nepal, ch. 1, "Environment and Economy"
Opening chapter of The Sherpas of Nepal (1964), describing the areas of Nepal where the main concentrations of Sherpas live, the types of settlements they have created, and their agriculture, animal husbandry, trade, and crafts.

Modern South Asia Timeline: Social Movements, Political Events, and Intellectual Production
An interactive timeline, with hyperlinked documents, maps, short biographies, and other material, focusing on the modern history of the Indian subcontinent. The timeline covers the nineteenth-century religious reforms instituted by Indian intellectuals and British colonial officials and the nationalist movements leading to the 1947 independence of India and the creation of Pakistan. It provides a brief overview of earlier cultural and political events (the Brahmanical tradition, the Mughal period) that influenced debates of the British colonial period. It also lists key events, post-1947 to the 1990s, relevant to contemporary anthropological questions regarding caste, gender, and ethnic conflict. The timeline was prepared in conjunction with Columbia University anthropology course "Introduction to South Asian History and Culture" (Fall 2005).

Syed Ahmad Khan
Brief biography of Syed Ahmad Khan

Letter from Rabindranath Tagore to Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India
A public letter addressed by Rabindranath Tagore to Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India, in which Tagore protests the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, Punjab, and renounces the knighthood that had been conferred on him in 1915. The letter was published in The Statesman (June 3, 1919), a leading English-language Indian newspaper, and in the Modern Review (July 1919), a Calcutta monthly.


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: Memories of the Mahatma, by G. V. Mavalankar

This BBC radio program features G. V. Mavalankar, who was Gandhi's lawyer and was Speaker in the Indian Lower House; he died in 1956. He relates his memories of his first meeting with Gandhi in Ahmedabad in 1916, when he felt that Gandhi's apparent obsession with everyday tasks was wrong, that he was "full of idiosyncrasies" and impolite to visitors. He recalls meeting Gandhi at the Gujarat Club in company with Sardar Patel (who would later become deputy prime minister of the newly independent India). Patel prevented Mavalankar from greeting Gandhi immediately, as he felt that the Mahatma did not like ceremony. Mavalankar analyzes how Gandhi persuaded people to follow nonviolent methods, and tells an anecdote about the 1931 census that illustrates Gandhi's relations with Patel.


Major Indian Cities
Small map of India showing major cities

Lahore and Amritsar
Detailed topographical map of Lahore (Pakistan) and Amritsar (India) in post-Partition Punjab

Languages and Minority Religions of India
Map of India showing major language groups and minority religions

India's Religions
Map of India's religious groups, by region and population

Population Density of India
Shaded map of India's population per square mile/kilometer

Map of India
Map of India's political boundaries, including states, with railroads and roads

Historical Map of India
Detailed 1882 map of India showing towns, cities, provinces, and rivers